Chilled Cucumber Soup

July 27, 2021 at 6:01 AM | Posted in diabetes, diabetes friendly, Diabetes Self Management | Leave a comment
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Here’s a recipe for a Chilled Cucumber Soup. To make this recipe you’ll be needing Cucumber, Reduced Fat Sour Cream, fresh Dill, Salt, White Pepper, Fat Free Reduced Sodium Chicken Broth, and Sprigs of Fresh Dill. The recipe is from the Diabetes Self Management website where you can find a huge selection of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more! You can also subscribe to the Diabetes Self Management Magazine. Each issue is packed with Diabetes News and Diabetic Friendly Recipes. I’ve left a link to subscribe at the end of the post. Enjoy and Eat Healthy in 2021! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

Chilled Cucumber Soup
Who says soup has to be hot? This light and creamy low-carb cucumber soup recipe is perfect for relaxing on a warm summer evening. And what’s more, you need only a handful of ingredients to whip up this refreshing dish!

Ingredients
1 large cucumber, peeled and coarsely chopped
3/4 cup reduced-fat sour cream
1/4 cup packed fresh dill
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
1/8 teaspoon white pepper (optional)
1 1/2 cups fat-free reduced-sodium chicken or vegetable broth
Sprigs fresh dill (optional)

Directions
Yield: 4 servings
Serving size: 3/4 cup

1 – Place cucumber in food processor; process until finely chopped. Add sour cream, 1/4 cup dill, salt, and white pepper, if desired; process until fairly smooth.

2 – Transfer mixture to large bowl; stir in broth. Cover and chill at least 2 hours or up to 24 hours. Ladle into shallow bowls; garnish with dill sprigs.

3 – Vegan Variation: Substitute dairy-free sour cream for regular. Use only vegetable broth.

Nutrition Information:
Calories: 67 calories, Carbohydrates: 6 g, Protein: 3 g, Fat: 4 g, Saturated Fat: 2 g, Cholesterol: 13 mg, Sodium: 236 mg, Fiber: 1 g
https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/soups-stews/chilled-cucumber-soup/

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Appetizer of the Week – Hot and Spicy Nuts

July 24, 2021 at 6:02 AM | Posted in Appetizer of the Week, Appetizers, diabetes, diabetes friendly, Diabetes Self Management | Leave a comment
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This week’s Appetizer of the Week is, Hot and Spicy Nuts. To make this week’s recipe you’ll be needing Whole Almonds, Pecan Halves, Walnut Halves, Canola Oil, Cumin, Curry Powder, Cayenne Pepper, and White Pepper. The Hot and Spicy Nuts have 96 calories and 2 net carbs per serving. The recipe is from the Diabetes Self Management website where you can find a huge selection of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more! You can also subscribe to the Diabetes Self Management Magazine. Each issue is packed with Diabetes News and Diabetic Friendly Recipes. I’ve left a link to subscribe at the end of the post. Enjoy and Eat Healthy in 2021! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

Hot and Spicy Nuts
Looking for a quick and healthy snack that won’t break the calorie bank? With under 100 calories and 3 grams of carbohydrate per serving, these mixed nuts fit the bill. A hint of cayenne, cumin, and curry give this low-carb snack the perfect amount of kick!

Ingredients
Preparation time: 15–20 minutes

1/2 cup whole almonds
1/2 cup pecan halves
1/2 cup walnut halves
1 teaspoon canola oil
1/2 teaspoon cumin
1/2 teaspoon curry powder
1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper
Dash of white pepper

Directions
Yield: 1 1/2 cups
Serving size: 1/4 cup

1 – Preheat oven to 350°F. Toss the nuts with oil in a large bowl. In a small bowl, combine the spices. Add spices to the nuts, stirring until the nuts are covered evenly. Spread the nuts on a baking tray in a single layer. Bake the nuts for 10 to 12 minutes. Remove from oven and cool before serving.

Nutrition Information:
Calories: 96 calories, Carbohydrates: 3 g, Protein: 2 g, Fat: 9 g, Saturated Fat: <1 g, Sodium: 1 mg, Fiber: 1 g
https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/snack/hot-and-spicy-nuts/

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Diabetic Side Dish of the Week – Swedish Potato Salad

June 20, 2021 at 6:02 AM | Posted in diabetes, diabetes friendly, Diabetes Self Management, Diabetic Side Dish of the Week | Leave a comment
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This week’s Diabetic Side Dish of the Week is Swedish Potato Salad. To make this week’s Recipe you’ll be needing Potatoes, Leeks, Capers, White Pepper, Fat Free Mayonnaise, and Fat Free Sour Cream. There’s 83 calories and 17 net carbs per serving. The recipe is from the Diabetes Self Management website where you can find a huge selection of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more! You can also subscribe to the Diabetes Self Management Magazine. Each issue is packed with Diabetes News and Diabetic Friendly Recipes. I’ve left a link to subscribe at the end of the post. Enjoy and Eat Healthy in 2021! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

Swedish Potato Salad
This simple potato salad features just six ingredients and comes together in 30 minutes. Creamy and flavorful, it’s a perfect pairing for burgers, chicken, steak, and all your favorite foods!

Ingredients
Preparation time: 30 minutes

4 cups cubed potatoes
1 cup chopped leeks, both green and white portions
1 tablespoon capers, drained
1/2 teaspoon white pepper
1/2 cup fat-free mayonnaise
1 cup fat-free sour cream

Directions
Yield: 11 servings
Serving size: 1/2 cup

1 – Place potatoes in a pot and cover with water. Cover and bring to boil, cooking until just tender. Drain, transfer to a large mixing bowl, and chill. Stir in chopped leeks and capers, and add white pepper. Fold mayonnaise into sour cream and add mixture to potatoes, stirring until well blended. Chill until serving time.

Nutrition Information:
Calories: 83 calories, Carbohydrates: 18 g, Protein: 2 g, Fat: 1 g, Saturated Fat: 0 g, Sodium: 131 mg, Fiber: 1 g
https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/salads/swedish-potato-salad/

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Diabetic Dish of the Week – Scallop and Artichoke Heart Casserole

April 6, 2021 at 6:02 AM | Posted in diabetes, diabetes friendly, Diabetes Self Management, Diabetic Side Dish of the Week | Leave a comment
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This week’s Diabetic Dish of the Week is a Scallop and Artichoke Heart Casserole. To make this week’s recipe you’ll be needing Frozen Artichoke Hearts, Scallops, Canola Oil, Red Bell Peppers, Green Onions, All Purpose Flour, 1% Milk, Dried Tarragon, Salt, White Pepper, Parsley and Paprika. The Dish is 227 calories and 19 net carbs per serving. The recipe is from the Diabetes Self Management website where you can find a huge selection of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more! You can also subscribe to the Diabetes Self Management Magazine. Each issue is packed with Diabetes News and Diabetic Friendly Recipes. I’ve left a link to subscribe at the end of the post. Enjoy and Eat Healthy in 2021! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

Scallop and Artichoke Heart Casserole
Scallops are a good source of protein, vitamin B12, magnesium, and potassium — and best of all, they lend their delicious taste to this casserole!

Ingredients
1 package (9 ounces) frozen artichoke hearts, cooked and drained
1 pound scallops
1 teaspoon canola or vegetable oil
1/4 cup chopped red bell pepper
1/4 cup sliced green onions
1/4 cup all-purpose flour
2 cups low-fat (1%) milk
1 teaspoon dried tarragon
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon white pepper
1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
Dash paprika

Directions
Yield: 4 servings
Serving size: 1/4 of total recipe

1 – Preheat oven to 350°F.

2 – Cut large artichoke hearts lengthwise into halves. Arrange artichoke hearts in even layer in 8-inch square baking dish.

3 – Rinse scallops; pat dry with paper towel. If scallops are large, cut into halves. Arrange scallops evenly over artichokes.

4 – Heat oil in medium saucepan over medium-low heat. Add bell pepper and green onions; cook and stir 5 minutes or until tender. Stir in flour. Gradually stir in milk until smooth. Add tarragon, salt, and white pepper; cook and stir over medium heat 10 minutes or until sauce boils and thickens. Pour sauce over scallops.

5 – Bake, uncovered, 25 minutes or until bubbling and scallops are opaque. Sprinkle with parsley and paprika before serving.

Tip: White pepper is a mild version of the common black pepper. They both originate from the same berries, which are called peppercorns. White pepper helps to maintain consistent color in light foods.

Nutrition Information:
Calories: 227 calories, Carbohydrates: 23 g, Protein: 26 g, Fat: 4 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 43 mg, Sodium: 438 mg, Fiber: 4 g
https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/main-dishes/scallop-artichoke-heart-casserole/

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Diabetic Low Fat Blue Cheese Dressing Recipe

January 17, 2021 at 6:01 AM | Posted in diabetes, diabetes friendly, Diabetes Self Management | 2 Comments
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I also have a recipe for a Diabetic Low Fat Blue Cheese Dressing Recipe. Perfect for Salads or next time you have Chicken Wings. To make this recipe you’ll be needing Low Fat Cottage Cheese, Nonfat Yogurt, Low Fat Buttermilk, Crumbled Blue Cheese, Green Onion, Garlic Powder, and White Pepper. The recipe is from the Diabetes Self Management website where you can find a huge selection of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more! You can also subscribe to the Diabetes Self Management Magazine. Each issue is packed with Diabetes News and Diabetic Friendly Recipes. I’ve left a link to subscribe at the end of the post. Enjoy and Eat Healthy in 2021! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

Diabetic Low Fat Blue Cheese Dressing Recipe
Learn how to make blue cheese salad dressing with low-fat cottage cheese, buttermilk, and nonfat yogurt.

Ingredients
1/2 cup low-fat cottage cheese
1/2 cup nonfat yogurt
1/2 cup low-fat buttermilk
1/4 cup crumbled blue cheese
2 tablespoons sliced green onion
1/4 teaspoon garlic powder
1/8 teaspoon white pepper

Directions
Yield: 2 cups
Serving size: 1 tablespoon

1 – Combine all ingredients. Cover and chill.

Nutrition Information:
Calories: 12 calories, Carbohydrates: trace, Protein: 1 g, Fat: trace, Saturated Fat: 45 mg
https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/salads/blue-cheese-dressing/

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Diabetic Dish of the Week – New England Clam Chowder

December 8, 2020 at 6:02 AM | Posted in diabetes, diabetes friendly, Diabetes Self Management, Diabetic Dish of the Week | Leave a comment
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This week’s Diabetic Dish of the Week is New England Clam Chowder. To make this week’s Dish you’ll be needing Whole Baby Clams, Baking Potato, Onion, Skimmed Milk, White Pepper, Dried Thyme, and Reduced Fat Margarine. This version of New England Clam Chowder is only 204 calories and 29 carbs per serving! The recipe is from the Diabetes Self Management website where you can find a huge selection of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more! You can also subscribe to the Diabetes Self Management Magazine. Each issue is packed with Diabetes News and Diabetic Friendly Recipes. I’ve left a link to subscribe at the end of the post. Enjoy and Eat Healthy in 2020! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

New England Clam Chowder
Jam-packed with clams, this classic seafood dish is sure to warm you up! With just seven ingredients and less than 30 minutes of preparation time, it’s the perfect dish for cozying up by the

fireside.
Yield: 2 servings
Serving size: 1 bowl chowder (1/2 of total recipe)

Ingredients
1 can (5 ounces) whole baby clams, undrained
1 baking potato, peeled and coarsely chopped
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
2/3 cup evaporated skimmed milk
1/4 teaspoon white pepper
1/4 teaspoon dried thyme
1 tablespoon reduced-fat margarine

Directions
1 – Drain clams, reserving juice. Add enough water to reserved juice to measure 2/3 cup. Combine clam juice mixture, potato, and onion in large saucepan. Bring to a boil over high heat; reduce heat and simmer 8 minutes or until potato is tender.

2 – Add milk, pepper, and thyme to saucepan. Increase heat to medium-high. Cook and stir 2 minutes. Add margarine. Cook 5 minutes or until soup thickens, stirring occasionally.

3 – Add clams; cook and stir 5 minutes or until clams are firm.

Yield: 2 servings. Serving size: 1 bowl chowder (1/2 of total recipe).

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:
Calories: 204 calories, Carbohydrates: 30 g, Protein: 14 g, Fat: 4 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 47 mg, Sodium: 205 mg, Fiber: 1 g
https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/main-dishes/new-england-clam-chowder/

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Sunday’s Chicken Dinner Recipe – Diabetic Lemon Chicken Recipe

June 16, 2019 at 6:02 AM | Posted in Diabetes Self Management, Sunday's Chicken Dinner | Leave a comment
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This week’s Sunday’s Chicken Dinner Recipe is – Diabetic Lemon Chicken Recipe. Chicken Breasts, Lemon, Onion Powder, White Pepper, and Oregano are the ingredients for this week’s recipe. A really easy recipe to prepare. It’s from one of my favorite sites, the Diabetes Self Management website. Loads of Diabetic Friendly Recipes, Diabetes News, Diabetes Management Tips, and more can be found at the site so check it out today. Enjoy and Make 2019 a Health One! https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/

Diabetic Lemon Chicken Recipe
Preparation time: 5 minutes. Cooking time: 30 minutes.

Ingredients
Nonstick cooking spray
1 pound boneless, skinless chicken breast (4 pieces)
1 tablespoon olive oil
1 large lemon
1/2 teaspoon onion powder
1/2 teaspoon white pepper
1 1/2 teaspoons oregano

Directions
Preheat oven to 375˚F. Tear off a piece of aluminum foil that’s large enough wrap up all four pieces of chicken. Spray the aluminum foil with nonstick cooking spray (on one side only), and lay the chicken breasts on the sprayed foil. Drizzle with olive oil. Grate 1 tablespoon of lemon zest and set aside. Juice the lemon, removing the seeds. Pour lemon juice over chicken, then sprinkle chicken with lemon zest, onion powder, white pepper, and oregano. Fold the aluminum foil over the chicken and roll the edges of the foil together to make a sealed packet. Place packet on a jelly roll pan or in a large, shallow casserole dish. Bake 30 minutes. Remove from oven and carefully open foil, using tongs to remove chicken to serving plate.

Yield: 4 servings.

Serving size: One 4-ounce breast.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:
Calories: 195 calories, Carbohydrates: 3 g, Protein: 30 g, Fat: 7 g, Saturated Fat: 2 g, Cholesterol: 96 mg, Sodium: 347 mg, Fiber: 0 g

https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/recipes/main-dishes/easy-lemon-chicken/

Pepper of the Week – Black Pepper

October 1, 2015 at 5:19 AM | Posted in Pepper of the Week | 1 Comment
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Pepper plant with immature peppercorns

Pepper plant with immature peppercorns

After going through the types of Apples list, it’s on to Peppers! Each week I’ll feature a different type of Pepper, through Wiki and various other sites for info. Starting off with Black Pepper. Spice it up!

 

 

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When dried, the fruit is known as a peppercorn. When fresh and fully mature, it is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed. Peppercorns, and the ground pepper derived from them, may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit) and white pepper (ripe fruit seeds).

Black pepper is native to south India, and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Currently Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper and producing 34% of the world’s Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.

Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavor and as a traditional medicine. Black pepper is the world’s most traded spice. It is one of the most common spices added to European cuisine and its descendants. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine, not to be confused with the capsaicin that gives fleshy peppers theirs. It is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning and is often paired with salt.

 

The six variants of pepper

The six variants of pepper

Varieties

Black pepper
Black pepper is produced from the still-green, unripe drupes of the pepper plant. The drupes are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The drupes are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates, the berries are separated from the stem by hand and then sun-dried without the boiling process.

Once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit and oil can be extracted from the berries by crushing them. Pepper spirit is used in many medicinal and beauty products. Pepper oil is also used as an ayurvedic massage oil and used in certain beauty and herbal treatments.

White pepper
“White pepper” redirects here. For the Ween album, see White Pepper.

White pepper grains
White pepper consists of the seed of the pepper plant alone, with the darker-colored skin of the pepper fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by a process known as retting, where fully ripe red pepper berries are soaked in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, including removing the outer layer through mechanical, chemical or biological methods.

Ground white pepper is often used in cream sauces, Chinese and Thai cuisine, and dishes like salad, light-colored sauces and mashed potatoes, where black pepper would visibly stand out. White pepper has a slightly different flavor from black pepper, due to the lack of certain compounds present in the outer fruit layer of the drupe, but not found in the seed. A slightly sweet version of white pepper from India is sometimes called safed golmirch (Hindi), shada golmorich (Bengali), or safed golmirch.

Green pepper
Green pepper, like black, is made from the unripe drupes. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a way that retains the green color, such as treatment with sulphur dioxide, canning or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe drupes preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper drupes, largely unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines, particularly Thai cuisine. Their flavor has been described as spicy and fresh, with a bright aroma. They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.

Wild pepper
Wild pepper grows in the Western Ghats region of India. Into the 19th century, the forests contained expansive wild pepper vines, as recorded by the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan (also a botanist and geographer) in his book A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar (Volume III). However, deforestation resulted in wild pepper growing in more limited forest patches from Goa to Kerala, with the wild source gradually decreasing as the quality and yield of the cultivated variety improved. No successful grafting of commercial pepper on wild pepper has been achieved to date.

Orange pepper and red pepper
Orange pepper or red pepper usually consists of ripe red pepper drupes preserved in brine and vinegar. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same color-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.

Pink pepper and other plants used as pepper
Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried “pink peppercorns”, which are actually the fruits of a plant from a different family, the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, or its relative the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius. A pink peppercorn (French: baie rose, “pink berry”) is a dried berry of the shrub Schinus molle, commonly known as the Peruvian peppertree. As they are members of the cashew family, they may cause allergic reactions including anaphylaxis for persons with a tree nut allergy.

The bark of Drimys winteri (“Canelo” or “Winter’s Bark”) is used as a substitute for pepper in cold and temperate regions of Chile and Argentina where it is easily available.

In New Zealand the seeds of Kawakawa (Macropiper excelsum), a relative of black pepper, are sometimes used as pepper and the leaves of Pseudowintera colorata (mountain horopito) are another replacement for pepper.

Several plants in the United States are used also as pepper substitutes, such as Lepidium campestre, Lepidium virginicum, shepherd’s purse, horseradish, and field Pennycress.

 

Black and white peppercorns

Black and white peppercorns

Pepper is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. J. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia, its most important source was India, particularly the Malabar Coast, in what is now the state of Kerala Peppercorns were a much-prized trade good, often referred to as “black gold” and used as a form of commodity money. The legacy of this trade remains in some Western legal systems which recognize the term “peppercorn rent” as a form of a token payment made for something that is in fact being given.

The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper, the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just “piper”. In fact, it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chili peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chili peppers, some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper, were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.

Before the 16th century, pepper was being grown in Java, Sunda, Sumatra, Madagascar, Malaysia, and everywhere in Southeast Asia. These areas traded mainly with China, or used the pepper locally. Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. Following the British hegemony in India, virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa was traded from Malabar region.

 

Black pepper grains

Black pepper grains

Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from piperine derived both from the outer fruit and the seed. Black pepper contains between 4.6% and 9.7% piperine by mass, and white pepper slightly more than that. Refined piperine, by weight, is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin found in chili peppers. The outer fruit layer, left on black pepper, also contains important odor-contributing terpenes including pinene, sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene, and linalool, which give citrusy, woody, and floral notes. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper, which is stripped of the fruit layer. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. The aroma of pepper is attributed to rotundone (3,4,5,6,7,8-Hexahydro-3α,8α-dimethyl-5α-(1-methylethenyl)azulene-1(2H)-one), a sesquiterpene originally discovered in the tubers of cyperus rotundus, which can be detected in concentrations of 0.4 nanograms/L in water and in wine: rotundone is also present in marjoram, oregano, rosemary, basil, thyme, and geranium, as well as in some Shiraz wines.

 

Herb and Spice of the Week – Pepper

March 5, 2015 at 6:33 AM | Posted in Herb and Spice of the Week | Leave a comment
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Black and white peppercorns

Black and white peppercorns

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed. Peppercorns, and the ground pepper derived from them, may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit) and white pepper (ripe fruit seeds).

 

 

Black pepper is native to south India, and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Currently Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world’s Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.

Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavour and as a traditional medicine. Black pepper is the world’s most traded spice. It is one of the most common spices added to European cuisine and its descendants. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine, not to be confused with the capsaicin that gives fleshy peppers theirs. It is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning, and is often paired with salt.

 

The 6 variants of Pepper

The 6 variants of Pepper

Black pepper
Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe drupes of the pepper plant. The drupes are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The drupes are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates, the berries are separated from the stem by hand and then sun-dried without the boiling process.

Once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit & oil can be extracted from the berries by crushing them. Pepper spirit is used in many medicinal and beauty products. Pepper oil is also used as an ayurvedic massage oil and used in certain beauty and herbal treatments.

White pepper
White pepper consists of the seed of the pepper plant alone, with the darker-colored skin of the pepper fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by a process known as retting, where fully ripe red pepper berries are soaked in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, including removing the outer layer through mechanical, chemical or biological methods.

Ground white pepper is often used in cream sauces, Chinese and Thai cuisine, and dishes like salad, light-colored sauces and mashed potatoes, where black pepper would visibly stand out. White pepper has a slightly different flavor than black pepper, due to the lack of certain compounds present in the outer fruit layer of the drupe, but not found in the seed. A slightly sweet version of white pepper from India is sometimes called Safed Golmirch (Hindi), Shada golmorich (Bengali), or Safed Golmirch (Punjabi).
Green pepper
Green pepper, like black, is made from the unripe drupes. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a way that retains the green color, such as treatment with sulphur dioxide, canning or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe drupes preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper drupes, largely unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines, particularly Thai cuisine. Their flavor has been described as spicy and fresh, with a bright aroma. They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.

Wild pepper
Wild pepper grows in the Western Ghats region of India. Into the 19th Century, the forests contained expansive wild pepper vines, as recorded by the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan, (also a botanist and geographer) in his book, A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar (Volume III). However, deforestation resulted in wild pepper growing in more limited forest patches from Goa to Kerala, with the wild source gradually decreasing as the quality and yield of the cultivated variety improved. No successful grafting of commercial pepper on wild pepper has been achieved to date.

Orange pepper and red pepper
Orange pepper or red pepper usually consists of ripe red pepper drupes preserved in brine and vinegar. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same color-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.

Pink pepper and other plants used as pepper
Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried “pink peppercorns”, which are actually the fruits of a plant from a different family, the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, or its relative the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius. A pink peppercorn (French: baie rose, “pink berry”) is a dried berry of the shrub Schinus molle, commonly known as the Peruvian peppertree. As they are members of the cashew family, they may cause allergic reactions including anaphylaxis for persons with a tree nut allergy.

 

Pepper before ripening

Pepper before ripening

The bark of Drimys winteri (“Canelo” or “Winter’s Bark”) is used as a substitute for pepper in cold and temperate regions of Chile and Argentina where it is easily available.

In New Zealand the seeds of Kawakawa (Macropiper excelsum), a relative of black pepper, are sometimes used as pepper and the leaves of Pseudowintera colorata (mountain horopito) are another replacement for pepper.

Several plants in the United States are used also as pepper substitutes, such as Lepidium campestre, Lepidium virginicum, shepherd’s purse, horseradish, and field Pennycress.

 
Like many eastern spices, pepper was historically both a seasoning and a folk medicine. Long pepper, being stronger, was often the preferred medication, but both were used. Black Pepper (or perhaps long pepper) was believed to cure illness such as constipation, diarrhoea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay, and toothaches. Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems, often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit; pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. Nevertheless, black pepper, either powdered or its decoction, is widely used in traditional Indian medicine and as a home remedy for relief from sore throat, throat congestion, cough etc.

Pepper is known to cause sneezing. Some sources say that piperine, a substance present in black pepper, irritates the nostrils, causing the sneezing; Few, if any, controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.

Piperine is under study for its potential to increase absorption of selenium, vitamin B, beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. As a folk medicine, pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta, chapter five, as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk.

Pepper contains phytochemicals, including amides, piperidines, pyrrolidines and trace amounts of safrole which may be carcinogenic in laboratory rodents.

Piperine is under study for a variety of possible physiological effects, although this work is preliminary and mechanisms of activity for piperine in the human body remain unknown.

 
Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from piperine derived both from the outer fruit and the seed. Black pepper contains between 4.6% and 9.7% piperine by mass, and white pepper slightly more than that. Refined piperine, by weight, is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin found in chili peppers. The outer fruit layer, left on black pepper, also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene, sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene, and linalool, which give citrusy, woody, and floral notes. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper, which is stripped of the fruit layer. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. The aroma of pepper is attributed to rotundone (3,4,5,6,7,8-Hexahydro-3α,8α-dimethyl-5α-(1-methylethenyl)azulene-1(2H)-one), a sesquiterpene originally discovered in the tubers of cyperus rotundus, which can be detected in concentrations of 0.4 nanograms/L in water and in wine: rotundone is also present in marjoram, oregano, rosemary, basil, thyme, and geranium, as well as in some Shiraz wines.

Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation, so airtight storage helps preserve its spiciness longer. Pepper

Handheld pepper mills

Handheld pepper mills

can also lose flavor when exposed to light, which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Once ground, pepper’s aromatics can evaporate quickly; most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Handheld pepper mills or grinders, which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns, are used for this, sometimes instead of pepper shakers that dispense pre-ground pepper. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century, but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper have remained a popular method for centuries as well.

 

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