One of America’s Favorites – Peanut Butter

February 3, 2020 at 6:02 AM | Posted in One of America's Favorites | Leave a comment
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“Smooth” peanut butter in a jar

Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground, dry-roasted peanuts. It often contains additional ingredients that modify the taste or texture, such as salt, sweeteners, or emulsifiers. Peanut butter is popular in many countries. The United States is a leading exporter of peanut butter and itself consumes $800 million of peanut butter annually.

Peanut butter is served as a spread on bread, toast, or crackers, and used to make sandwiches (notably the peanut butter and jelly sandwich). It is also used in a number of breakfast dishes and desserts, such as peanut-flavored granola, smoothies, crepes, cookies, brownies, or croissants. It is similar to other nut butters such as cashew butter and almond butter.

The two main types of peanut butter are crunchy (or chunky) and smooth (or creamy). In crunchy peanut butter, some coarsely-ground peanut fragments are included to give extra texture. The peanuts in smooth peanut butter are ground uniformly, creating a creamy texture.

In the US, food regulations require that any product labelled “peanut butter” must contain at least 90% peanuts; the remaining <10% usually consists of “…salt, a sweetener, and an emulsifier or hardened vegetable oil which prevents the peanut oil from separating”. In the US, no product labelled as “peanut butter” can contain “artificial sweeteners, chemical preservatives, natural or artificial coloring additives.” Some brands of peanut butter are sold without emulsifiers that bind the peanut oils with the peanut paste, and so require stirring after separation. Most major brands of peanut butter add white sugar, but there are others that use dried cane syrup, agave syrup, or coconut palm sugar.

Organic and artisanal peanut butters are available, but their markets are small.

A tractor being used to complete the first stage of the peanut harvesting process

Production process
Planting and harvesting
Due to weather conditions, peanuts are usually planted in spring. The peanut comes from a yellow flower which bends over and infiltrates the soil after blooming and wilting, and the peanut starts to grow in the soil. Peanuts are harvested from late August to October, while the weather is clear. This weather allows for dry soil so that when picked, the soil does not stick to the stems and pods. The peanuts are then removed from vines and transported to a peanut shelling machine for mechanical drying. After cropping, the peanuts are delivered to warehouses for cleaning, where they are stored unshelled in silos.

Shelling
Shelling must be conducted carefully lest the seeds be damaged during the removal of the shell. The moisture of the unshelled peanuts is controlled to avoid excessive frangibility of the shells and kernels, which in turn, reduces the amount of dust present in the plant. After, the peanuts are sent to a series of rollers set specifically for the batch of peanuts, where they are cracked. After cracking, the peanuts go through a screening process where they are inspected for contaminants.

Roasting
The dry roasting process employs either the batch or continuous method. In the batch method, peanuts are heated in large quantities in a revolving oven at about 800 °F (427 °C). Next, the peanuts in each batch are uniformly held and roasted in the oven at 320 °F (160 °C) for about 40 to 60 minutes. This method is good to use when the peanuts differ in moisture content. In the continuous method, a hot air roaster is employed. The peanuts pass through the roaster whilst being rocked to permit even roasting. A photometer indicates the completion of dry roasting. This method is favored by large manufacturers since it can lower the rate of spoilage and requires less labor.

Cooling
After dry roasting, peanuts are removed from the oven as quickly as possible and directly placed in a blower-cooler cylinder. There are suction fans in the metal cylinder that can pull a large volume of air through, so the peanuts can be cooled more efficiently. The peanuts will not be dried out because cooling can help retain some oil and moisture. The cooling process is completed when the temperature in the cylinder reaches 86 °F (30 °C).

Blanching
After the kernels have been cooled down, the peanuts will undergo either heat blanching or water blanching to remove the remaining seed coats. Compared to heat blanching, water blanching is a new process. Water blanching first appeared in 1949.

Heat blanching
Peanuts are heated by hot air at 280 °F (138 °C) for not more than 20 minutes in order to soften and split the skins. After that, the peanuts are exposed to continuous steam in a blanching machine. The skins are then removed using either bristles or soft rubber belts. After that, these skins are separated and blown into waste bags. Meanwhile, the hearts of peanuts are segregated through inspection.

Water blanching
After the kernels are arranged in troughs, the skin of the kernel is cracked on opposite sides by rolling it through sharp stationary blades. While the skins are removed, the kernels are brought through a one-minute hot water bath and placed on a swinging pad with canvas on top. The swinging action of the pad rubs off the skins. Afterward, the blanched kernels are dried for at least six hours by hot air at 120 °F (49 °C).

After blanching, the peanuts are screened and inspected to eliminate the burnt and rotten peanuts. A blower is also used to remove light peanuts and discolored peanuts are removed using a color sorting machine.

Grinding
After blanching the peanuts are sent to grinding to be manufactured into peanut butter. The peanuts are then sent through two sizes of grinders. The first grinder produces a medium grind, and the second produces a fine grind. At this point, salt, sugar and a vegetable oil stabilizer are added to the fine grind to produce the peanut butter. This adds flavor and allows the peanut butter to stay as a homogenous mixture. Chopped peanuts may also be added at this stage to produce “chunky” peanut butter.

Packaging

A jar of commercial “creamy” peanut butter

Before packaging, the peanut butter must first be cooled in order to be sealed in jars. The mixture is pumped into a heat exchanger in order to cool it to about 120 °F (49 °C). Once cool, the peanut butter is pumped into jars and vacuum sealed. This vacuum sealing rids the container of oxygen so that oxidation cannot occur, preserving the food. The jars are then labelled and set aside until crystallization occurs. The peanut butter is then packaged into cartons distributed to retailers, where they are stored at room temperature and sold to consumers.

A 2012 article stated that “China and India are the first and second largest producers, respectively”, of peanuts. The United States of America “…is the third largest producer of peanuts (Georgia and Texas are the two major peanut-producing states)” and “more than half of the American peanut crop goes into making peanut butter.”

Nutritional profile
In a 100 gram amount, smooth peanut butter supplies 588 Calories and is composed of 50% fat, 25% protein, 20% carbohydrates (including 6% dietary fiber), and 2% water (table).

Peanut butter is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of dietary fiber, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, niacin, and vitamin B6 (table, USDA National Nutrient Database). Also high in content are the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper (table). Peanut butter is a moderate source (10–19% DV) of thiamin, iron, and potassium (table).

Both crunchy/chunky and smooth peanut butter are sources of saturated (primarily palmitic acid, 21% of total fat) and monounsaturated fats, mainly oleic acid as 47% of total fat, and polyunsaturated fat (28% of total fat), primarily as linoleic acid).

Peanut allergy
For people with a peanut allergy, peanut butter can cause a variety of possible allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis. This potential effect has led to banning peanut butter, among other common foods, in some schools.

Symptoms
* Shortness of breath
* Wheezing
* Tightening of the throat
* Itching
* Skin reactions such as hives and swelling
* Digestive problems

Peanut butter cookies, a popular type of cookie made from peanut butter and other ingredients

As an ingredient
Peanut butter is included as an ingredient in many recipes: peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, peanut butter cookies, and candies where peanut is the main flavor, such as Reese’s Pieces, or various peanut butter and chocolate treats, such as Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups and the Crispy Crunch candy bar.

Peanut butter’s flavor combines well with other flavors, such as oatmeal, cheese, cured meats, savory sauces, and various types of breads and crackers. The creamy or crunchy, fatty, salty taste pairs very well with complementary soft and sweet ingredients like fruit preserves, bananas, apples, and honey. The taste can also be enhanced by similarly salty things like bacon (see peanut butter, banana and bacon sandwich), especially if the peanut butter has added sweetness.

One snack for children is called “Ants on a Log”, with a celery stick acting as the “log”. The groove in the celery stick is filled with peanut butter and raisins arranged in a row along the top are “ants”.

Plumpy’nut is a peanut butter-based food used to fight malnutrition in famine-stricken countries. A single pack contains 500 calories, can be stored unrefrigerated for 2 years, and requires no cooking or preparation.

As animal food
Peanut butter inside a hollow chew toy is a method to occupy a dog with a favored treat. A common outdoor bird feeder is a coating of peanut butter on a pine cone with an overlying layer of birdseed.

Wild Idea Buffalo Recipe of the Week – DRUNKEN KIDNEYS

May 22, 2019 at 6:02 AM | Posted in Wild Idea Buffalo | Leave a comment
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This week’s Wild Idea Buffalo Recipe of the Week – Drunken Kidneys. You’ll be using Wild Idea Buffalo Kidney to prepare along with White Wine to get it to that Drunken Stage! A perfect hors d’oeuvre for your next gathering! You can find this recipe and purchase the Wild Idea Buffalo Kidneys along with all the other Wild Idea Products at the Wild Idea Buffalo website. So Enjoy and Make 2019 a Healthy One! http://wildideabuffalo.com/

Drunken Kidneys

Meat guru, Hugh Fearnley Whittingstall, inspired this recipe. In his rendition, he states that, “If you don’t like kidney, or you’re not quite sure, this recipe will convert you.” I fell in the “not quite sure category”, but I also believe it’s important to consume the whole animal, so thought I would give it a try. I was quickly converted. It is a delicious dish, and would make a terrific hors d’oeuvre for your next party.

Ingredients:
1 – Wild Idea Buffalo Kidney
1 – cup milk
2 – tablespoons olive oil
1 – teaspoon salt
1 – teaspoon black pepper
1 – cup mushrooms, chopped
2 – tablespoons cider vinegar
¼ – cup red current or plum jelly
1 – cup dry sherry
1 – cup white wine
2 – teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
¼ – teaspoon cayenne, *I added more
1 – tablespoon, Dijon mustard
1 – tablespoon cream or sour cream
fresh parsley and chives, chopped

Preparation:
1) Rinse kidney, pat dry, and cut into pieces. Place kidney in a bowl and cover with the milk. Soak for 2 to 24 hours. Drain the milk from the kidney and pat dry.

2) In a sauté pan over medium high heat, heat oil. Add the kidney and season with the salt and pepper. Sauté until browned, tossing or stirring occasionally.

3) Stir in the mushrooms and sauté for a couple more minutes.

4) Add the cider vinegar and then the jelly. Stir to incorporate.

5) Add the sherry, wine, Worcestershire, cayenne, and Dijon. Stir to incorporate. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for about 30 minutes.

6) Remove lid and stir in cream. Season to taste, garnish with fresh herbs, and serve with toast points

http://wildideabuffalo.com/blogs/recipes/54673217-drunken-kidneys

Wild Idea Buffalo Recipe of the Week – Drunken Kidneys

May 24, 2017 at 4:51 AM | Posted in Wild Idea Buffalo | Leave a comment
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This week’s Wild Idea Buffalo Recipe of the Week – Drunken Kidneys. You’ll be using Wild Idea Buffalo Kidney to prepare the dish along with White Wine to get it to that Drunken Stage! A perfect hors d’oeuvre for your next gathering! You can find this recipe and purchase the Wild Idea Buffalo Kidneys all on the Wild Idea Buffalo website. http://wildideabuffalo.com/

 

 

Drunken Kidneys

Meat guru, Hugh Fearnley Whittingstall, inspired this recipe. In his rendition, he states that, “If you don’t like kidney, or you’re not quite sure, this recipe will convert you.” I fell in the “not quite sure category”, but I also believe it’s important to consume the whole animal, so thought I would give it a try. I was quickly converted. It is a delicious dish, and would make a terrific hors d’oeuvre for your next party.
Ingredients:
1 – Wild Idea Buffalo Kidney
1 – cup milk
2 – tablespoons olive oil
1 – teaspoon salt
1 – teaspoon black pepper
1 – cup mushrooms, chopped
2 – tablespoons cider vinegar
¼ – cup red current or plum jelly
1 – cup dry sherry
1 – cup white wine
2 – teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
¼ – teaspoon cayenne, *I added more
1 – tablespoon, Dijon mustard
1 – tablespoon cream or sour cream
fresh parsley & chives, chopped

 

Preparation:
1) Rinse kidney, pat dry, and cut into pieces. Place kidney in a bowl and cover with the milk. Soak for 2 to 24 hours. Drain the milk from the kidney and pat dry.

2) In a sauté pan over medium high heat, heat oil. Add the kidney and season with the salt and pepper. Sauté until browned, tossing or stirring occasionally.

3) Stir in the mushrooms and sauté for a couple more minutes.

4) Add the cider vinegar and then the jelly. Stir to incorporate.

5) Add the sherry, wine, Worcestershire, cayenne, and Dijon. Stir to incorporate. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for about 30minutes.

6) Remove lid and stir in cream. Season to taste, garnish with fresh herbs, and serve with toast points

http://wildideabuffalo.com/blogs/recipes/54673217-drunken-kidneys

Wild Idea Buffalo Recipe of the Week – Drunken Kidneys

January 6, 2016 at 6:37 AM | Posted in Wild Idea Buffalo | Leave a comment
Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

This week’s Wild Idea Buffalo Recipe of the Week – Drunken Kidneys. You’ll be using Wild Idea Buffalo Kidney to prepare the dish along with White Wine to get it to that Drunken Stage! A perfect hors d’oeuvre for your next gathering! You can find this recipe and purchase the Wild Idea Buffalo Kidneys all on the Wild Idea Buffalo website. http://wildideabuffalo.com/

 

 

Drunken Kidneys

Meat guru, Hugh Fearnley Whittingstall, inspired this recipe. In his rendition, he states that, “If you don’t like kidney, or you’re not quite sure, this recipe will convert you.” I fell in the “not quite sure category”, but I also believe it’s important to consume the whole animal, so thought I would give it a try. I was quickly converted. It is a delicious dish, and would make a terrific hors d’oeuvre for your next party.
Ingredients:Drunken Kidneys
1 – Wild Idea Buffalo Kidney
1 – cup milk
2 – tablespoons olive oil
1 – teaspoon salt
1 – teaspoon black pepper
1 – cup mushrooms, chopped
2 – tablespoons cider vinegar
¼ – cup red current or plum jelly
1 – cup dry sherry
1 – cup white wine
2 – teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
¼ – teaspoon cayenne, *I added more
1 – tablespoon, Dijon mustard
1 – tablespoon cream or sour cream
fresh parsley & chives, chopped

Preparation:
1) Rinse kidney, pat dry, and cut into pieces. Place kidney in a bowl and cover with the milk. Soak for 2 to 24 hours. Drain the milk from the kidney and pat dry.

2) In a sauté pan over medium high heat, heat oil. Add the kidney and season with the salt and pepper. Sauté until browned, tossing or stirring occasionally.

3) Stir in the mushrooms and sauté for a couple more minutes.Wild Idea

4) Add the cider vinegar and then the jelly. Stir to incorporate.

5) Add the sherry, wine, Worcestershire, cayenne, and Dijon. Stir to incorporate. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for about 30minutes.

6) Remove lid and stir in cream. Season to taste, garnish with fresh herbs, and serve with toast points

http://wildideabuffalo.com/blogs/recipes/54673217-drunken-kidneys

One of America’s Favorites – Doughnut

December 28, 2015 at 5:53 AM | Posted in One of America's Favorites | Leave a comment
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A glazed yeast-raised ring doughnut

A glazed yeast-raised ring doughnut

A doughnut or donut (/ˈdoʊnət/ or /ˈdoʊnʌt/; see spelling differences) is a type of fried dough confectionery or dessert food. The doughnut is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarkets, food stalls, and franchised specialty outlets. Doughnuts are usually deep-fried from a flour dough, and typically either ring-shaped or without a hole, and often filled. Other types of batters can also be used, and various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. In addition to flour, doughnuts may also include such ingredients as water, leavening, eggs, milk, sugar, oil/shortening, natural flavors and/or artificial flavors.

The two most common types are the toroidal ring doughnut and the filled doughnut—which is injected with fruit preserves, cream, custard, or other sweet fillings. A small spherical piece of dough may be cooked as a doughnut hole. Other shapes include rings, balls, and flattened spheres, as well as ear shapes, twists and other forms. Doughnut varieties are also divided into cake and risen type doughnuts.

 

 
Shapes
Rings
Ring doughnuts are formed by joining the ends of a long, skinny piece of dough into a ring or by using a doughnut cutter, which simultaneously cuts the outside and inside shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole from dough removed from the center. This smaller piece of dough can be cooked or added back to the batch to make more doughnuts. A disk-shaped doughnut can also be stretched and pinched into a torus until the center breaks to form a hole. Alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle of liquid dough (batter) directly into the fryer.

There are two types of ring doughnuts, those made from a yeast-based dough for raised doughnuts or made from a special type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil by weight, whereas cake doughnuts’ oil content is around 20%, but they have extra fat included in the batter before frying. Cake doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at approximately 190 °C (374 °F) to 198 °C (388 °F), turning once. Yeast-raised doughnuts absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds, at 182 °C (359 °F) to 190 °C (374 °F). Cake doughnuts typically weigh between 24 g and 28 g (0.85 oz to 0.99 oz), whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g (1.34 oz) and are generally larger, and taller (due to rising) when finished.

Topping
After frying, ring doughnuts are often topped. Raised doughnuts are generally covered with a glaze (icing). Cake doughnuts can also be glazed, or powdered with confectioner’s sugar, or covered with cinnamon and granulated sugar. They are also often topped with cake frosting (top-side only) and sometimes sprinkled with coconut, chopped peanuts, or sprinkles (also called jimmies).

Holes

A variety of doughnuts

A variety of doughnuts

Doughnut holes are small, bite-sized doughnuts that were traditionally made from the dough taken from the center of ring doughnuts. Before long, doughnut sellers saw the opportunity to market “holes” as a novelty and many chains offer their own variety, some with their own brand names such as “Munchkins” from Dunkin’ Donuts and “Timbits” from Tim Hortons.

Traditionally, doughnut holes are made by frying the dough removed from the center portion of the doughnut. Consequently, they are considerably smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical. Similar to standard doughnuts, doughnut holes may be topped with confections, such as glaze or powdered sugar.

Originally, most varieties of doughnut holes were derivatives of their ring doughnut (yeast-based dough or cake batter) counterparts. However, doughnut holes can also be made by dropping a small ball of dough into hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle or cutter. This production method has allowed doughnut sellers to produce bite-sized versions of non-ring doughnuts, such as filled doughnuts, fritters and Dutchies.

Filled
The filled doughnut is a flattened sphere injected with fruit preserves, cream, custard, or other sweet fillings, and often dipped into powdered sugar or topped off with frosting. Common varieties include the Boston cream, coconut, key lime, and jelly.

Other shapes
Others include the fritter and the Dutchie, which are usually glazed. These have been available on Tim Hortons’ doughnut menu since the chain’s inception in 1964, and a 1991 Toronto Star report found out that these two were the chain’s most popular type of fried dough in Canada.

There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as old-fashioned, bars or Long Johns (a rectangular shape), or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking. In the northeast U.S., bars and twists are usually referred to as crullers. Another is the beignet, which is square-shaped, covered with powdered sugar.

 

 

 

Glazed doughnuts rolling on a conveyor belt at a Krispy Kreme doughnut shop

Glazed doughnuts rolling on a conveyor belt at a Krispy Kreme doughnut shop

Doughnuts have a disputed history. One theory suggests they were invented in North America by Dutch settlers, and in the 19th century, doughnuts were sometimes referred to as one kind of oliekoek (a Dutch word literally meaning “oil cake”), a “sweetened cake fried in fat.”

Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in 1847 aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old. Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts. He claimed to have punched a hole in the center of dough with the ship’s tin pepper box, and to have later taught the technique to his mother. Smithsonian Magazine states that his mother, Elizabeth Gregory, “made a wicked deep-fried dough that cleverly used her son’s spice cargo of nutmeg and cinnamon, along with lemon rind,” and “put hazelnuts or walnuts in the center, where the dough might not cook through”, and called the food ‘doughnuts’.

According to anthropologist Paul R. Mullins, the first cookbook mentioning doughnuts was an 1803 English volume which included doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes. By the mid-19th century, the doughnut looked and tasted like today’s doughnut, and was viewed as a thoroughly American food.

Another theory on their origin came to light in 2013, appearing to predate all previous claims, when a recipe for “dow nuts” was found in a book of recipes and domestic tips written in 1800 by the wife of Baron Thomas Dimsdale, the recipe being given to the dowager Baroness by an acquaintance who transcribed for her the cooking instructions of a local delicacy, the “Hertfordshire nut”.

 

 
National Doughnut Day, also known as National Donut Day, celebrated in the United States of America, is on the first Friday of June each year, succeeding the Doughnut Day event created by The Salvation Army in 1938 to honor those of their members who served doughnuts to soldiers during World War I. About 250 Salvation Army volunteers went to France. Because of the difficulties of providing freshly baked goods from huts established in abandoned buildings near the front lines, the two Salvation Army volunteers (Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance) came up with the idea of providing doughnuts. These are reported to have been an “instant hit”, and “soon many soldiers were visiting The Salvation Army huts”. Margaret Sheldon wrote of one busy day: “Today I made 22 pies, 300 doughnuts, 700 cups of coffee.” Soon, the women who did this work became known by the servicemen as “Doughnut Dollies”.

 

 
Frosted, glazed, powdered, Boston cream, coconut, sour cream, cinnamon, chocolate, and jelly are some of the varieties eaten in the United States and Canada. Sweetening, filling, and fancy toppings are now so common that plain doughnuts are now commonly labeled and sold as “old fashioned”.

There are also potato doughnuts (sometimes referred to as spudnuts). Doughnuts are ubiquitous in the United States and can be found in most grocery stores, as well as in specialty doughnut shops.

A popular doughnut in Hawaii is the malasada. Malasadas were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Portuguese settlers, and are a variation on Portugal’s filhós. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep-fried and coated in sugar.

Immigrants have brought various doughnut varieties to the United States. To celebrate Fat Tuesday in eastern Pennsylvania, churches sell a potato starch doughnut called a Fastnacht (or Fasnacht). The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday is often called Fastnacht Day. The Polish doughnut, the pączki, is popular in U.S. cities with large Polish communities such as Chicago, Milwaukee, and Detroit.

In regions of the country where apples are widely grown, especially the Northeast and Midwest states, cider doughnuts are a harvest season specialty, especially at orchards open to tourists, where they can be served fresh. Cider doughnuts are a cake doughnut with apple cider in the batter. The use of cider affects both the texture and flavor, resulting in a denser, moister product. They are often coated with either granulated or powdered sugar or cinnamon sugar.

In Southern Louisiana, a popular variety of the doughnut is the beignet, a fried, square doughnut served traditionally with powdered sugar. Perhaps the most famous purveyor of beignets is New Orleans restaurant Cafe Du Monde.

In Quebec, homemade doughnuts called beignes de Noël are traditional Christmas desserts.

 

 

Chocolate-frosted doughnut

Chocolate-frosted doughnut

Within the United States, the Providence metropolitan area was cited as having the most donut shops per capita (25.3 doughnut shops per 100,000 people) as of January 13, 2010.

National Doughnut Day celebrates the doughnut’s history and role in popular culture. There is a race in Staunton, Illinois, featuring doughnuts, called Tour de Donut.

In film, the doughnut has inspired Dora’s Dunking Doughnuts (1933), The Doughnuts (1963) and Tour de Donut: Gluttons for Punishment. In video games, the doughnut has appeared in games like The Simpsons Game and Donut Dilemma. In the cartoon Mucha Lucha, there are four things that make up the code of mask wrestling: honor, family, tradition, and doughnuts. Also, in the popular television sitcom The Simpsons, Homer Simpson’s love affair with doughnuts makes a prominent ongoing joke as well as the focal point of more than a few episodes. There is also a children’s book Arnie the Doughnut and music albums The Doughnut in Granny’s Greenhouse and Desert Doughnuts.

In several media, doughnuts are frequently presented as enjoyed by police officers during coffee break. This cliché has been parodied in the film Police Academy 4: Citizens on Patrol, where Officer Zed is instructing new recruits how to “properly” consume their doughnut with coffee. It is also parodied in the television series Twin Peaks, where the police station is always in large supply. In the video game Neuromancer there is a Donut World shop, where only policemen are allowed. During a city-wide “lockdown” after the Boston Marathon bombings, a handful of selected Dunkin’ Donuts locations were ordered to remain open to serve police and first responders despite the closing of the vast majority of city businesses.

 

Kitchen Hint of the Day!

September 24, 2015 at 4:45 AM | Posted in Kitchen Hints | 3 Comments
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Keep soft cookies, cakes, and pancakes deliciously moist by adding a teaspoon of jelly to the batter. You can also add a sugar free pudding cup, that also works.

One of America’s Favorites – Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich

September 15, 2014 at 5:38 AM | Posted in One of America's Favorites | 2 Comments
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The peanut butter and jelly sandwich or PB&J is a sandwich, popular in North America, that includes a layer of peanut butter and either jelly or jam on bread, commonly between two slices of bread, but sometimes eaten open-faced or with one slice folded over.

A 2002 survey showed the average American will have eaten 1,500 of these sandwiches before graduating from high school.

A peanut butter and jelly sandwich

A peanut butter and jelly sandwich

 

 
Peanut butter was first paired with a diverse set of foods such as pimento, nasturtium, cheese, celery, watercress, and on toasted crackers. In a Good Housekeeping article published in May 1896, a recipe “urged homemakers to use a meat grinder to make peanut butter and spread the result on bread.” In June of that same year, the culinary magazine Table Talk published a “peanut butter sandwich recipe.” The first reference of peanut butter paired with jelly on bread to be published in the United States was by Julia Davis Chandler in 1901 in the Boston Cooking-School Magazine of Culinary Science and Domestic Economics. By the late 1920s, this sandwich eventually moved down the class structure as the price of peanut butter dropped. It became popular with children. During World War II, it is said that both peanut butter and jelly were found on U.S. soldiers’ military ration list, as claimed by the Peanut Board.

 

 
A peanut butter and jelly sandwich made from white bread, with two tablespoons each of peanut butter and grape jelly, provides 27% of a person’s Recommended Daily Intake of fat and 22% of their calories.

While roughly 45% of the calories are from fat, most of them come from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which have been linked positively with heart health.

 

 
In December 1999, two independent inventors, Len Kretchman and David Geske, were granted U.S. patent, “Sealed Crustless Sandwich” for a peanut butter sandwich that would have a long shelf life. The J.M. Smucker Co. bought the patent from the inventors and developed a commercial product based on the patent called Uncrustables. Smuckers then invested US$17 million in a new factory to produce the product. By 2005, sales of Uncrustables had grown to $60 million a year with a 20% per year growth rate.

Smuckers attempted to enforce their patent rights by sending out cease and desist letters to competitors, and by expanding their intellectual property coverage via the patenting of a machine to produce Uncrustables sandwiches in high volume. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, however, rejected the viability of the patent citing its similarity to existing processes such as that of fashioning ravioli or pie crust.

 

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