Condiment of the Week – Fruit Preserves

January 28, 2016 at 6:08 AM | Posted in Condiment of the Week | Leave a comment
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Strawberry jam, one type of common fruit preserve

Strawberry jam, one type of common fruit preserve

Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.

Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as strawberry or apricot, as well as savory preserves of vegetables, such as tomatoes or squash. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used. In English the world over the plural form “preserves” is used to describe all types of jams and jellies.

 
The term ‘preserves’ is usually interchangeable with ‘jams’. Some cookbooks define preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit (or vegetable), which includes a significant portion of the fruit. In the English speaking world, the two terms are more strictly differentiated and, when this is not the case, the more usual generic term is ‘jam’.

Jam apart from being a particular type of preserve (spreadable containing the fruit) is also used as a general term (in British and Commonwealth English) for any type of fruit preserve (e.g. “the jam factory in Tiptree”) while in the US the term jelly is preferred; e.g. a jam donut or a jam sandwich in the UK, Ireland and Canada is a jelly donut and a jelly sandwich in the US.

The singular preserve or conserve is used as a collective noun for high fruit content jam, often for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will also vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.

 

 

Five varieties of fruit preserves: apple, quince, plum, squash, orange

Five varieties of fruit preserves: apple, quince, plum, squash, orange

In general, jam is produced by taking mashed or chopped fruit or vegetable pulp and boiling it with sugar and water. The proportion of sugar and fruit varies according to the type of fruit and its ripeness, but a rough starting point is equal weights of each. When the mixture reaches a temperature of 104 °C (219 °F), the acid and the pectin in the fruit react with the sugar, and the jam will set on cooling. However, most cooks work by trial and error, bringing the mixture to a “fast rolling boil”, watching to see if the seething mass changes texture, and dropping small samples on a plate to see if they run or set.

Commercially produced jams are usually produced using one of two methods. The first is the open pan method, which is essentially a larger scale version of the method a home jam maker would use. This gives a traditional flavor, with some caramelization of the sugars. The second commercial process involves the use of a vacuum vessel, where the jam is placed under a vacuum, which has the effect of reducing its boiling temperature to anywhere between 65 and 80 °C depending on the recipe and the end result desired. The lower boiling temperature enables the water to be driven off as it would be when using the traditional open pan method, but with the added benefit of retaining more of the volatile flavor compounds from the fruit, preventing caramelization of the sugars, and of course reducing the overall energy required to make the product. However, once the desired amount of water has been driven off, the jam still needs to be heated briefly to 95 to 100 °C (203 to 212 °F) to kill off any micro-organisms that may be present; the vacuum pan method does not kill them all.

During commercial filling it is common to use a flame to sterilize the rim and lid of jars to destroy any yeasts and molds which may cause spoilage during storage. Steam is commonly injected immediately prior to lidding to create a vacuum, which both helps prevent spoilage and pulls down tamper-evident safety button when used.

 
Glass or plastic jars are an efficient method of storing and preserving jam. Though sugar can keep for exceedingly long times, containing it in a jar is far more useful than older methods. Other methods of packaging jam, especially for industrially produced products, include cans and plastic packets, especially used in the food service industry for individual servings. Fruit preserves typically are of low water activity and can be stored at room temperature after opening, if used within a short period of time.

 

Kitchen Hint of the Day!

December 6, 2013 at 9:27 AM | Posted in Kitchen Hints | Leave a comment
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Making jam  If you add a small pat of butter when cooking fruits for preserves and jellies, there will be no foam to skim off the top. The fat acts as a sealant and prevents the air from rising and accumulating on top as foam.

One of America’s Favorites – Fruit Preserves

August 5, 2013 at 9:27 AM | Posted in One of America's Favorites | 1 Comment
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Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. The preparation of fruit

Strawberry jam, one type of common fruit preserve

Strawberry jam, one type of common fruit preserve

preserves today often involves adding commercial or natural pectin as a gelling agent, although sugar or honey may be used, as well. Before World War II, fruit preserve recipes did not include pectin, and many artisan jams today are made without pectin. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the ingredients used.
Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as strawberry, as well as savory preserves of culinary vegetables, such as tomatoes or squash. In American English, the plural form “preserves” is used to describe all types of jams and jellies. In British and Commonwealth English most fruit preserves are simply called jam, with the singular preserve being applied to high fruit content jam, often for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will also vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.
Variations

Five varieties of fruit preserves (clockwise from top): apple, quince, plum, squash, orange (in the center)

Five varieties of fruit preserves (clockwise from top): apple, quince, plum, squash, orange (in the center)

Chutney
A chutney is a pungent relish of Indian origin made of fruit, spices and herbs. Although originally intended to be eaten soon after production, modern chutneys are often made to be sold, so require preservatives – often sugar and vinegar – to ensure they have a suitable shelf life. Mango chutney, for example, is mangoes reduced with sugar.

 

 

Confit
While confit, the past participle of the French verb confire, “to preserve”, is most often applied to preservation of meats, it is also used for fruits or vegetables seasoned and cooked with honey or sugar till jam-like. Savory confits, such as ones made with garlic or fennel, may call for a savory oil, such as virgin olive oil, as the preserving agent.

 

 

A conserve

A conserve, or whole fruit jam, is a jam made of fruit stewed in sugar.
Often the making of conserves can be trickier than making a standard jam, because the balance between cooking, or sometimes steeping in the hot sugar mixture for just enough time to allow the flavor to be extracted from the fruit, and sugar to penetrate the fruit, and cooking too long that fruit will break down and liquefy. This process can also be achieved by spreading the dry sugar over raw fruit in layers, and leaving for several hours to steep into the fruit, then just heating the resulting mixture only to bring to the setting point. As a result of this minimal cooking, some fruits are not particularly suitable for making into conserves, because they require cooking for longer periods to avoid issues such as tough skins. Currants and gooseberries, and a number of plums are among these fruits.
Because of this shorter cooking period, not as much pectin will be released from the fruit, and as such, conserves (particularly home-made conserves) will sometimes be slightly softer set than some jams.
An alternative definition holds that conserves are preserves made from a mixture of fruits and/or vegetables. Conserves may also include dried fruit or nuts.

 

 

Fruit butter
Fruit butter, in this context, refers to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process.
“Fruit butters are generally made from larger fruits, such as apples, plums, peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp … add sugar and cook as rapidly as possible with constant stirring… The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid.”—Berolzheimer R (ed) et al. (1959)

 

 

Fruit curd
Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread usually made with lemon, lime, orange, or raspberry. The basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, sugar, fruit juice and zest which are gently cooked together until thick and then allowed to cool, forming a soft, smooth, intensely flavored spread. Some recipes also include egg whites and/or butter.

 
Fruit spread
Fruit spread refers to a jam or preserve with no added sugar.

 
Jam
Jam typically contains both the juice and flesh of a fruit or vegetable, although some cookbooks define it as a cooked and jelled puree.
In the US, the term “jam” refers to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or crushed then heated with water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers:
“Jams are usually made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a combination of several fruits. Berries and other small fruits are most frequently used, though larger fruits such as apricots, peaches, or plums cut into small pieces or crushed are also used for jams. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct pieces of fruit, a bright color, a good fruit flavor and a semi-jellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid.” – Berolzheimer R (ed) et al. (1959 )
Freezer jam is uncooked (or cooked less than 5 minutes), then stored frozen. It is popular in parts of North America for its very fresh taste…

 

 

Jelly
Jelly is an American term for clear or translucent fruit spread made from sweetened fruit (or vegetable) juice and set using naturally occurring pectin (the word signifies a gelatin based dessert in British English). Additional pectin may be added where the original fruit does not supply enough, for example with grapes. Jelly can be made from sweet, savory or hot ingredients. It is made by a process similar to that used for making jam, with the additional step of filtering out the fruit pulp after the initial heating. A muslin or stockinette “jelly bag” is traditionally used as a filter, suspended by string over a bowl to allow the straining to occur gently under gravity. It is important not to attempt to force the straining process, for example by squeezing the mass of fruit in the muslin, or the clarity of the resulting jelly will be compromised. Jelly can come in all sorts of flavors such as grape jelly, strawberry jelly and much more. It also can be used on or with a variety of foods. This includes jelly with toast, or a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
“Good jelly is clear and sparkling and has a fresh flavor of the fruit from which it is made. It is tender enough to quiver when moved, but holds angles when cut.
EXTRACTING JUICEPectin is best extracted from the fruit by heat, therefore cook the fruit until soft before straining to obtain the juice … Pour cooked fruit into a jelly bag which has been wrung out of cold water. Hang up and let drain. When dripping has ceased the bag may be squeezed to remove remaining juice, but this may cause cloudy jelly.” – Berolzheimer R (ed) et al. (1959)

 

 

Marmalade
Marmalade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits boiled with sugar and water. It can be produced from lemons, limes, grapefruits, mandarins, sweet oranges, bergamots and other citrus fruits, or any combination thereof.
The benchmark citrus fruit for marmalade production in Britain is the Spanish Seville orange, Citrus aurantium var. aurantium, prized for its high pectin content, which gives a good set. The peel has a distinctive bitter taste which it imparts to the preserve. In America marmalade is sweet.
Marmalade is generally distinguished from jam by its fruit peel.

 

 

In general, jam is produced by taking mashed or chopped fruit or vegetable pulp and boiling it with sugar and water. The proportion of

Jam being made in a pot

Jam being made in a pot

sugar and fruit varies according to the type of fruit and its ripeness, but a rough starting point is equal weights of each. When the mixture reaches a temperature of 104 °C (219 °F), the acid and the pectin in the fruit react with the sugar, and the jam will set on cooling. However, most cooks work by trial and error, bringing the mixture to a “fast rolling boil”, watching to see if the seething mass changes texture, and dropping small samples on a plate to see if they run or set.
Commercially produced jams are usually produced using one of two methods. The first is the open pan method, which is essentially a larger scale version of the method a home jam maker would use. This gives a traditional flavor, with some caramelization of the sugars. The second commercial process involves the use of a vacuum vessel, where the jam is placed under a vacuum, which has the effect of reducing its boiling temperature to anywhere between 65 and 80 °C depending on the recipe and the end result desired. The lower boiling temperature enables the water to be driven off as it would be when using the traditional open pan method, but with the added benefit of retaining more of the volatile flavor compounds from the fruit, preventing caramelization of the sugars, and of course reducing the overall energy required to make the product. However, once the desired amount of water has been driven off, the jam still needs to be heated briefly to 95 to 100 °C to kill off any micro-organisms that may be present; the vacuum pan method does not kill them all.
During commercial filling it is common to use a flame to sterilize the rim and lid of jars to destroy any yeasts and molds which may cause spoilage during storage. Steam is commonly injected immediately prior to lidding to create a vacuum, which both helps prevent spoilage and pulls down tamper-evident safety button when used.

 

 

Glass jars are an efficient method of storing and preserving jam. Though sugar can keep for exceedingly long times, containing it in a jar is far more useful than older methods. Other methods of packaging jam, especially for industrially produced products, include cans, and plastic packets, especially used in the food service industry for individual servings.

 

 

One of America’s Favorites – Fruit preserves (Jams and Jellies)

November 26, 2012 at 10:50 AM | Posted in cooking | 1 Comment
Tags: , , , , , , ,

Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. The preparation of fruit preserves today often involves adding commercial or natural pectin as a gelling agent, although sugar or honey may be used, as well.

Strawberry jam, one type of common fruit preserve

Before World War II, fruit preserve recipes did not include pectin, and many artisan jams today are made without pectin. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the ingredients used.
Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as strawberry, as well as savoury preserves of culinary vegetables, such as tomatoes or squash. In North America, the plural form “preserves” is used to describe all types of jams and jellies. In British and Commonwealth English most fruit preserves are simply called jam, with the singular preserve being applied to high fruit content jam, often for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will also vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.

Variations

Chutney

A chutney is a pungent relish of Indian origin made of fruit, spices and herbs. Although originally intended to be eaten soon after production, modern chutneys are often made to be sold, so require preservatives – often sugar and vinegar – to ensure they have a suitable shelf life. Mango chutney, for example, is mangoes reduced with sugar.
Confit

Confit, which is the past participle form of the French verb confire or “to preserve”, is most often applied to preservation of duck, goose or pigs, especially Lancashire and Pot-belly, by cooking them in their own fat or oils and allowing the fats to set. However, the term can also refer to fruit or vegetables which have been seasoned and cooked with honey or sugar until the mixture has reached a jam-like consistency. Savory confits, such as ones made with garlic or fennel, may call for a savory oil, such as virgin olive oil, as the preserving agent.

 

Conserves
A conserve, or whole fruit jam, is a jam made of fruit stewed in sugar.
Often the making of conserves can be trickier than making a standard jam, because the balance between cooking, or sometimes steeping in the hot sugar mixture for just enough time to allow the flavor to be extracted from the fruit, and sugar to penetrate the fruit, and cooking too long that fruit will break down and liquefy. This process can also be achieved by spreading the dry sugar over raw fruit in layers, and leaving for several hours to steep into the fruit, then just heating the resulting mixture only to bring to the setting point. As a result of this minimal cooking, some fruits are not particularly suitable for making into conserves, because they require cooking for longer periods to avoid issues such as tough skins. Currants and gooseberries, and a number of plums are among these fruits.
Because of this shorter cooking period, not as much pectin will be released from the fruit, and as such, conserves (particularly home-made conserves) will sometimes be slightly softer set than some jams.
An alternate definition holds that conserves are preserves made from a mixture of fruits and/or vegetables. Conserves may also include dried fruit or nuts.

Fruit butter

Fruit butter, in this context, refers to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process.
“Fruit butters are generally made from larger fruits, such as apples, plums, peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp … add sugar and cook as rapidly as possible with constant stirring… The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid.”—Berolzheimer R (ed) et al. (1959)

Fruit curd
Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread usually made with lemon, lime, orange, or raspberry. The basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, sugar, fruit juice and zest which are gently cooked together until thick and then allowed to cool, forming a soft, smooth, intensely flavored spread. Some recipes also include egg whites and/or butter.

Fruit spread
Fruit spread refers to a jam or preserve with no added sugar.

 

Jam
Jam contains both fruit juice and pieces of the fruit’s (or vegetable’s) flesh, although some cookbooks define jam as cooked and gelled fruit (or vegetable) purees.
Properly, the term “jam” refers to a product made with whole fruit, cut into pieces or crushed. The fruit is heated with water and sugar to activate the pectin in the fruit. The mixture is then put into containers. The following extract from a US cookbook describes the process.
“Jams are usually made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a combination of several fruits. Berries and other small fruits are most frequently used, though larger fruits such as apricots, peaches, or plums cut into small pieces or crushed are also used for jams. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct pieces of fruit, a bright color, a good fruit flavor and a semi-jellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid.” – Berolzheimer R (ed) et al. (1959)
Examples:
Peach blackberry jam (sweet, fruit)
Strawberry jam (sweet, fruit)
Variations
Uncooked or minimally cooked (less than 5 min) jams, called ‘freezer jam’ because they are stored frozen, are popular in parts of North America for their very fresh taste.

Jelly
Jelly is a clear or translucent fruit spread made from sweetened fruit (or vegetable) juice and set using naturally occurring pectin. Additional pectin may be added where the original fruit does not supply enough, for example with grapes.[12] Jelly can be made from sweet, savory or hot ingredients. It is made by a process similar to that used for making jam, with the additional step of filtering out the fruit pulp after the initial heating. A muslin or stockinette “jelly bag” is traditionally used as a filter, suspended by string over a bowl to allow the straining to occur gently under gravity. It is important not to attempt to force the straining process, for example by squeezing the mass of fruit in the muslin, or the clarity of the resulting jelly will be compromised.
“Good jelly is clear and sparkling and has a fresh flavor of the fruit from which it is made. It is tender enough to quiver when moved, but holds angles when cut.
EXTRACTING JUICEPectin is best extracted from the fruit by heat, therefore cook the fruit until soft before straining to obtain the juice … Pour cooked fruit into a jelly bag which has been wrung out of cold water. Hang up and let drain. When dripping has ceased the bag may be squeezed to remove remaining juice, but this may cause cloudy jelly.” – Berolzheimer R (ed) et al. (1959)
Examples:
Grape jelly (sweet, fruit)
Mint jelly (savory)
Jalapeño pepper jelly (hot)

Marmalade
British-style marmalade is a sweet preserve with a bitter tang made from fruit, sugar, water, and (in some commercial brands) a gelling agent. American-style marmalade is sweet, not bitter. In English-speaking usage, marmalade almost always refers to a preserve derived from a citrus fruit, most commonly oranges, although onion marmalade is also used as an accompaniment to savory dishes.
The recipe includes sliced or chopped fruit peel, which is simmered in fruit juice and water until soft; indeed, marmalade is sometimes described as jam with fruit peel (although many companies now also manufacture peel-free marmalade). Such marmalade is most often consumed on toasted bread for breakfast. The favored citrus fruit for marmalade production in the UK is the Seville orange, Citrus aurantium var. aurantium, thus called because it was originally imported from Seville in Spain; it is higher in pectin than sweet oranges, and therefore gives a good set. Marmalade can also combine or be exclusively made from other type of citrus fruit; lime being a popular variant.

The term ‘preserves’ is usually interchangeable with ‘jam’. Some cookbooks define preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit (or

Five varieties of fruit preserves (clockwise from top): apple, quince, plum, squash, orange (in the center)

vegetable), which includes a significant portion of the fruit.
The terms ‘jam’ and ‘jelly’ are used in different parts of the English-speaking world in different ways. In the United States, both jam and jelly are often referred to as ‘jelly’. Elsewhere in the English speaking world, the two terms are more strictly differentiated and, when this is not the case, the more usual generic term is ‘jam’.
To further confuse the issue, the term ‘jelly’ is also used in the UK, South Africa, Australia, India and New Zealand to refer to a gelatin dessert, known in North America as ‘jello’, derived from the brand name Jell-O.

In general, jam is produced by taking mashed or chopped fruit or vegetable pulp and boiling it with sugar and water. The proportion of sugar and fruit varies according to the type of fruit and its ripeness, but a rough starting point is equal weights of each. When the mixture reaches a temperature of 104 °C (219 °F),[citation needed] the acid and the pectin in the fruit react with the sugar, and the jam will set on cooling. However, most cooks work by trial and error, bringing the mixture to a “fast rolling boil”, watching to see if the seething mass changes texture, and dropping small samples on a plate to see if they run or set.
Commercially produced jams are usually produced using one of two methods. The first is the open pan method, which is essentially a larger scale version of the method a home jam maker would use. This gives a traditional flavor, with some caramelization of the sugars. The second commercial process involves the use of a vacuum vessel, where the jam is placed under a vacuum, which has the effect of reducing its boiling temperature to anywhere between 65 and 80 °C depending on the recipe and the end result desired. The lower boiling temperature enables the water to be driven off as it would be when using the traditional open pan method, but with the added benefit of retaining more of the volatile flavor compounds from the fruit, preventing caramelization of the sugars, and of course reducing the overall energy required to make the product. However, once the desired amount of water has been driven off, the jam still needs to be heated briefly to 95 to 100 °C to kill off any micro-organisms that may be present; the vacuum pan method does not kill them all. During the commercial filling of the jam into jars, it is common to use a flame to sterilize the rim of the jar and the lid to destroy any yeasts and molds which may cause spoilage during storage. It is also common practice to inject steam into the head space at the top of the jar immediately prior to the fitting of the lid, to create a vacuum. Not only does this vacuum help prevent the growth of spoilage organisms, but it also pulls down the tamper-evident safety button when lids of this type are employed.

Glass jars are an efficient method of storing and preserving jam. Though sugar can keep for exceedingly long times, containing it in a jar is far more useful than older methods. Other methods of packaging jam, especially for industrially produced products, include cans, and plastic packets, especially used in the food service industry for individual servings

Jelly worldwide

*Almond jelly, a sweet dessert from Hong Kong
*Coffee jelly features in many desserts in Japan.
*Jellied cranberry sauce is primarily a holiday treat in the U.S. and the UK.
*Grass jelly, a food from China and Southeast Asia, often served in drinks
*Konjac, a variety of Japanese jelly made from konnyaku
*Mayhaw jelly is a delicacy in parts of the American South.
*Muk, a variety of Korean jelly, seasoned and eaten as a cold salad
*Nata de coco, jelly made from coconuts originating from the Philippines
*Yōkan, a sweet, pasty jelly dessert from Japan often made with beans, sweet potato or squash
There are a variety of jellies in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. Depending on the type, they may be sweet or unsweetened.
Making jams and jellies

A jam is a fruit conserve in which sugar and fruit chunks are boiled together. In a jelly, the juice is pressed or boiled out of the fruit, filtered and then boiled again with sugar to reduce and thicken it. It is important to keep in mind that some fruits are better for making jellies and others are better used in jams. Generally speaking, it’s easier to make a jam than it is to make a jelly.
Recipe for Jam

Ingredients:
*a good quantity of soft, fleshy fruit like strawberries, peaches, cherries, plums, blueberries, brambles
*sugar or sugar with added pectin
*lemon juice

 

Instructions: Clean the fruit, remove any stones, leaves or other incomestible parts, and wash it. If the fruit is not a small berry, then cut it up into small pieces. Weigh the fruit and add the same weight of sugar to it. If you are using a very juicy fruit, you may prefer to use sugar with added pectin. Pectin is naturally present in most fruits and will cause the jam to “set”, but some fruits contain less pectin and some contain more, so it is often helpful to add some.
Sprinkle the fruit and sugar with lemon juice and stir well. Then cover the container and let the mixture rest for at least one hour in a clean, cool place to let the fruit absorb the sugar. After this, pour the mixture into a sufficiently large cooking pot. Traditionally a copper pot is used, but any other cooking pot will do fine. Bring the mixture slowly to the boil on a low fire, stirring regularly. Depending on the fruit, you will need to boil the mixture for about an hour. The jam is ready when it is thick enough. Check this by pouring a drop of the jam onto a cold plate. It should turn sticky and not be too runny.
To preserve the jam well, you should pour it into glass flasks or containers that have been sterilized by boiling them in water. You can also pasteurize the containers by washing them with boiling water. The inside of lids as well as the flasks should be washed if the latter method is used. The jam should be poured rapidly into the still-hot containers. The containers should be sealed with lids. In this case it’s best to let the air bubble that is in the flask traverse the still-hot jam by turning it upside-down after the lid has been placed on. This is to disinfect the air bubble. Or, instead of a lid, the jam can be protected by pouring molten paraffin on top of it, and closing of the jar with a paper that is held with a rubber band.
Serve with bread, toast, English muffins, or pancakes.

One of America’s Favorites – Doughnuts

May 21, 2012 at 9:19 AM | Posted in baking, dessert, Food | 1 Comment
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A doughnut or donut is a type of fried dough confectionery or dessert food. Doughnuts are popular in many countries

A glazed ring doughnut

and prepared in

various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarkets, food stalls, and franchised specialty outlets. They are usually deep-fried from a flour dough, and shaped in rings or flattened spheres that sometimes contain fillings. Other types of batters can also be used, and various toppings and flavorings are used for different types. Krispy Kreme is a favorite and well known doughnut company worldwide.

The two most common types are the toroidal ring doughnut and the filled doughnut, a flattened sphere injected with fruit preserves, cream, custard, or other sweet fillings. A small spherical piece of dough may be cooked as a doughnut hole. Doughnut varieties are also divided into cake and risen type doughnuts. Other shapes include rings, balls, and flattened spheres, as well as ear shapes, twists and other forms.

Ring doughnuts are formed by joining the ends of a long, skinny piece of dough into a ring or by using a doughnut cutter, which

Glazed doughnuts being made

simultaneously cuts the outside and inside shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole from dough removed from the center. This smaller piece of dough can be cooked or added back to the batch to make more doughnuts. A disk-shaped doughnut can also be stretched and pinched into a torus until the center breaks to form a hole. Alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle of liquid dough (batter) directly into the fryer. Doughnuts can be made from a yeast-based dough for raised doughnuts or a special type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil by weight, whereas cake doughnuts’ oil content is around 20%, but they have extra fat included in the batter before frying. Cake doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at approximately 190 °C to 198 °C, turning once. Yeast-raised doughnuts absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds, at 182 °C to 190 °C. Cake doughnuts typically weigh between 24 g and 28 g, whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g and are generally larger when finished.

After frying, ring doughnuts are often topped with a glaze (icing) or a powder such as cinnamon or sugar. Styles such as fritters and jam doughnuts may be glazed and/or injected with jam or custard.

There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as old-fashioneds, bars or Long Johns (a rectangular shape), or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking. In the northeast US, bars and twists are usually referred to as crullers. Doughnut holes are small spheres that are made from the dough taken from the center of ring doughnuts or made to look as if they are. These holes are also known by brand names, such as Dunkin’ Donuts‘ Munchkins and Tim Hortons’ Timbits. There are also beignets, which are square donuts topped with powdered sugar.

Doughnuts have a disputed history. One theory suggests they were introduced into North America by Dutch settlers, who were

Iced doughnuts

responsible for popularizing other American desserts, including cookies, apple and cream pie, and cobbler. Indeed, in the 19th century, doughnuts were sometimes referred to as one kind of oliekoek (a Dutch word literally meaning “oil cake”), a “sweetened cake fried in fat.”

Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in 1847 aboard a lime-trading ship when he was only 16 years old. Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts. He claimed to have punched a hole in the center of dough with the ship’s tin pepper box, and later taught the technique to his mother.

According to anthropologist Paul R. Mullins, the first cookbook mentioning doughnuts was an 1803 English volume which included doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes. By the mid-19th century, the doughnut looked and tasted like today’s doughnut, and was viewed as a thoroughly American food.

“Dough nut”

The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates to an 1808 short story describing a spread of “fire-cakes and dough-nuts.” Washington Irving‘s reference to “doughnuts” in 1809 in his History of New York is more commonly cited as the first written recording of the term. Irving described “balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog’s fat, and called doughnuts, or olykoeks.” These “nuts” of fried dough might now be called doughnut holes. Doughnut is the more traditional spelling, and still dominates outside the US. At present, doughnut and the shortened form donut are both pervasive in American English.
“Donut”

The first known printed use of donut was in Peck’s Bad Boy and his Pa by George W. Peck, published in 1900, in which a character is quoted as saying, “Pa said he guessed he hadn’t got much appetite, and he would just drink a cup of coffee and eat a donut.” According to John T. Edge (Donuts, an American passion 2006) the alternative spelling “donut” was invented when the New York–based Display Doughnut Machine Corporation abbreviated the word to make it more pronounceable by the foreigners they hoped would buy their automated doughnut making equipment. The donut spelling also showed up in a Los Angeles Times article dated August 10, 1929 in which Bailey Millard jokingly complains about the decline of spelling, and that he “can’t swallow the ‘wel-dun donut’ nor the ever so ‘gud bred’. The interchangeability of the two spellings can be found in a series of “National Donut Week” articles in The New York Times that covered the 1939 World’s Fair. In four articles beginning October 9, two mention the donut spelling. Dunkin’ Donuts, which was founded in 1948 under the name Open Kettle (Quincy, Massachusetts), is the oldest surviving company to use the donut variation, other chains, such as the defunct Mayflower Doughnut Corporation (1931), did not use that spelling. According to the Oxford Dictionary while “doughnut” is used internationally, the spelling “donut” is American.

Frosted, glazed, powdered, Boston cream, coconut, sour cream, cinnamon, chocolate, and jelly are some of the varieties eaten in the United States and Canada. There are also potato doughnuts (sometimes referred to as spudnuts). Doughnuts are ubiquitous in the United States and can be found in most grocery stores, as well as in specialty doughnut shops.

A popular doughnut in Hawaii is the malasada. Malasadas were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Portuguese settlers, and are a variation on Portugal’s filhós. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep-fried and coated in sugar.

Immigrants have brought various doughnut varieties to the United States. To celebrate Fat Tuesday in eastern Pennsylvania, churches sell a potato starch doughnut called a Fastnacht (or Fasnacht). The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday is often called Fastnacht Day. The Polish doughnut, the pączki, is popular in U.S. cities with large Polish communities such as Chicago, Milwaukee, and Detroit.

In regions of the country where apples are widely grown, especially the Northeast and Midwest states, cider doughnuts are a harvest

Krispy Kreme glazed donuts

season specialty, especially at orchards open to tourists, where they can be served fresh. Cider donuts are a cake donut with apple cider in the batter. The use of cider affects both the texture and flavor, resulting in a denser, moister product. They are often coated with either granulated or powdered sugar or cinnamon sugar.

In Southern Louisiana, a popular variety of the doughnut is the beignet, a fried, square doughnut served traditionally with powdered sugar. Perhaps the most famous purveyor of beignets is New Orleans restaurant Cafe Du Monde.

Doughnut Holes:

Traditionally, doughnut holes are made by frying the dough removed from the center portion of the doughnut. Consequently, they are considerably smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical.

Commercially made ring doughnuts are not made by cutting out the central portion of the cake but by dropping a small ball of dough into hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle. Doughnut sellers saw the opportunity to market “holes” as a novelty, as if they were the portions cut out to make the ring. In Canada, due to the popularity of Tim Hortons, doughnut holes are often referred to by the genericized trademark “TimBits”. Similar to standard doughnuts, doughnut holes may be topped with confections, such as glaze or powdered sugar.

Per capita, Canadians consume the most doughnuts, and Canada has the most doughnut stores per capita. Tim Hortons is a popular Canadian doughnut and coffee franchise and one of the most successful food retailers in the country. In the Second City Television sketch comedy “The Great White North” featuring the fictional brothers Bob and Doug MacKenzie and in their film Strange Brew, doughnuts play a role in the duo’s comedy.

National Doughnut Day celebrates the doughnut’s history and role in popular culture. There is a race in Staunton, Illinois featuring doughnuts called Tour de Donut.

In film, the doughnut has inspired Dora’s Dunking Doughnuts (1933), The Doughnuts (1963) and Tour de Donut: Gluttons for Punishment. In video games, the doughnut has appeared in games like The Simpsons Game and Donut Dilemma. In the cartoon Mucha Lucha, there are four things that make up the code of mask wrestling: honor, family, tradition, and doughnuts. Also, in the popular television sitcom The Simpsons, Homer Simpson’s love affair with doughnuts makes a prominent on-going joke as well as the focal point of more than a few episodes. There is also a children’s book Arnie the Doughnut and music albums The Doughnut in Granny’s Greenhouse and Desert Doughnuts.

Marble Hill captures local flavor – Cincinnati Enquirer

January 25, 2012 at 1:29 PM | Posted in baking, Food, spices and herbs, vegetables | Leave a comment
Tags: , , , , , , ,

I wanted to pass this news article along, a really good story. I left the article link and Marble Hill Facebook link at the bottom of the post.

Marble Hill captures local flavor
Frequent farm visitor makes jams and jellies with fresh ingredients

By Polly Campbell

Bill Sands grew up in New York City, in the Marble Hill area of the Bronx.

He named his first company, Marble Hill Chocolatier, and his new one, Marble Hill Provisions, after his old neighborhood.

But for a guy who grew up in the city, Sands has been spending a lot of time in the country.

Ever since he began developing recipes for the jams, jellies, preserves and pickles that he sells as Marble Hill Provisions, he’s been hanging out at farmers markets, spending weekends driving around rural Ohio, talking to farmers, even pitching in on farm work.

“That’s the fun part,” he said. “Almost as fun as making the products. I get a lot out of it, personally, seeing how the products are grown and harvested, talking to the farmers about what goes into producing them.”

Sands, who makes his home in Union, Ky., has visited Wayward Seed Farm in Marysville, Ohio, where he buys sweet potatoes for his sweet potato butter. He’s visited the orchards at Eshelman Fruit Farm in Clyde, near Sandusky, where he gets apples and pears.

He got started with produce from Can-Du farm in Bethel, whose owners he met while selling jams and jellies at the Madeira Farmers market in summer 2008. He spent a day in the field with the root vegetable team at Chef’s Garden, the well-known specialty grower in Huron, Ohio.

“Almost all our products have a connection with a specific farm or producer,” he said. “That relationship gives such a sense of integrity. The one-on-one relationship is so important to what I’m doing.”

Each product is a season and a place captured in a jar to be enjoyed even in January or February. Production is seasonal; the products change with the availability of raw ingredients. So when they make Fortune Plum butter, it’s gone until next season for fortune plums.

For all the local, homegrown ingredients, the flavors and ingredients of some of the products have a big-city sophistication. There’s a strawberry-espresso and an apricot-bourbon jam. Sands seeks out unusual fruits and varieties such as quince, or the fortune plums, made into a fruit butter scented with cardamom. One popular style of his pickles is bottled with rye whiskey.

One popular flavor, which doesn’t use local ingredients, is the Meyer lemon-kumquat marmalade.

Sands and his one employee, Brooke Brandon, were making that variety one morning recently in the kitchen of Cumin, the Hyde Park restaurant. After chopping the citrus fruit and squeezing the juice, it was all combined in one shallow copper pot with flared sides.

“Copper works best because it heats quickly and evenly,” said Sands. “Jellies and marmalades need the high heat.” It’s also beautiful, with the shiny copper reflecting the fruit mixture, getting thicker and glossier as it reduces. It’s an intuitive cooking process; it’s done not so much at a specific temperature as when it reaches the particular consistency. The hot mixture is ladled into 8-ounce jars and then pasteurized.

That’s all there is to making marmalade. They don’t use added pectin. Most products have just a few ingredients.

“The Meyer lemon naturally has a spicy note, so we don’t add anything else. We want every product to taste mostly like its main ingredient,” said Sands.

This is production on a small scale. This batch will make one case of the marmalade, to be delivered to Fresh Market in Kenwood or Oakley, Marble Hill’s biggest customer. (Some kinds are also available at Park and Vine and Coffee Emporium.) Anthony La Marca, manger of the Kenwood store, said that the products were selling well, with their own display near the produce section, even at a premium price, about $10. “People just see them and are attracted to them,” he said. “And the guy’s here all the time, sampling and demonstrating his products.”

Sands is not actually there all the time, because he has a full-time job in IT sales, and runs Marble Hill on evenings and weekends. He’s about to take his next big step in developing his business. His products will be carried by Fresh Markets in Columbus, Cleveland, and soon in Indiana and Kentucky.

They will soon grow out of the Cumin kitchen, and are looking for a new production spot.

Meanwhile, Sands is working on expanding his network of farmers who will grow with him. They’ve used California strawberries in the past, but hope by this summer, they’ll have a local supplier.

As he moves to Fresh Markets in other parts of the country, he sees an opportunity to create connections with farmers in those areas.

“Ten years ago, I don’t think this would have worked,” he said. “But I’m finding smaller, family farms who are really open to this. When they see I’m serious, they want to support the company and grow together. I’m finding a real spirit of partnership out there.”

http://news.cincinnati.com/article/20120125/LIFE01/301250022/Marble-Hill-captures-local-flavor?odyssey=mod|newswell|text|FRONTPAGE|s

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